Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
The Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park covers some 800 square kilometers in the centre of East Java. It is the largest volcanic region in the province and there stands Mt. Semeru, which rises 3676 meters above sea level. At its northern end is the spectacular Tengger Caldera, Java's largest, with its 10 km barren desert-like sea of sand. Within the caldera rise the deeply fissured volcanic cones of Batok and Bromo, the latter is still active with a cavernous crater from which smoke blows skyward. Temperatures at the top of mount Bromo range about 5 to 18 degrees Celcius . To the south is a rolling upland plateau dissected by valleys and dotted with several small scenic lakes, extending to the foot of Mount Semeru, a towering grey forest-skirted cone dominating the southern landscape.
The Tenggerese Society
The Tenggerese are an ethnic group inhabiting the highlands of East Java's Tengger mountain range, They live almost entirely from the cultivation of crops and embrace a Hindu/Buddhist religion. According to the East Java Parisada Hindu Darma, the relegion of the Tengger people is Mahayana Buddhism. The Tengger have no temples, but instead Punden, Poten or Danyang. The annual Yadnya Kasada is a holy ceremony held at the crater and sea of Mount Bromo is a holy festival of thanksgiving and a time for the inauguration of priest.
Flora and Fauna
Most of the parts of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park as the area of are fertile, the flora grows well including: pinus, merkusii, fir tree, and eldeweiis (anavalis sp. the protected plants ). The typical animal living in the National Park include: Timor deer, (Cerveos timorenses) wild dog, leopard (Panthera tigris sundaicus), pangolin (Manis para manis javanicus), flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), and other bird species.