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   Description of  Kabupaten Lumajang
In Java, there are two ancient cities which still exist until now, they are Lamajang (today, it is Lumajang) and Tuban. For the city which celebrated its 742nd anniversary lately, it has a long historical chronology. Since there are many accurate proofs about the historical background found, experts began to debate with each other as to decide the exact anniversary date. Finally, they made a decision based on historical writing 'Prasasti Malurung' dated 1177 Saka (December 15, 1255). The day was established to be the birthday of Lumajang.

In order to reveal the glory of the ancient times, there are some references taken, the book "Sejarah Pemerintahan Lumajang" or some writings by history observers. To reflect the historical path of the city, the followings are some parts of the historical plot.

When the King of Majapahit, Sri Rajasanegara Dyah Hayam Wuruk went through an official trip to visit Lumajang in 1359 AD accompanied by the "Kingdom Public Relation Manager" Empu Prapanca, Lumajang has became a state reigned by an emperor. According to the historical source "Prasasti Malurung" dated 1177 Saka, "Lumajang State" was reigned by King Nararyya Kirana Sminingrat from Kediri- the name was adopted for the name of a hospital in Lumajang- Swadana Hospital (RSUS-Rumah Sakit Umum Swadana).

The Saka date which is exactly on December 15, 1255, is declared as the Birthday of Lumajang, based on the result of the Seminar held on the period of the regent, HM Samsi Ridwan, which is kept until now. Now, Lumajang is 742 years old.

It is important to be noted that before the history of Indonesia was recorded in a written form (pre-historical era) the area of Lumajang had been inhibited by people with the belief of Megalithicum, leaving artifacts such as menhir and 'punden berundak'. Menhir is a log of stone held straight as a memorial to the ancestors found in the district of Senduro, Gucialit, Sukodono, Klakah and Lumajang. The one which is the most interesting is the Menhir in Kandangan village within the district of Senduro, that is in the digging site Wadungprabu and Tejakusuma. In the place where people held a harvest ceremony, there lies 'batu berundak' as a place where they proceed a ritual ceremony associated with the cropping period and the worshipping of the ancestors' spirit in Neolithic era. From those findings which are recorded in the book "Sejarah Pemerintahan Lumajang"- we can assume that Lumajang is and ancient habitation which had already existed before the reign of Majaapahit and Kediri. Besides the ancient sources, there are many other written 'prasasti' found in Lumajang. The oldest ancient archives ever found is in ranu Gumbolo, on the foot of Mount Semeru. The 'prasasti' dated 1182 tells about King Kameswara's expedition from Kadiri to Mount Semeru.

Location and Total Area
Lumajang Regency lies between 7 degrees 54' - 80 degrees 23' south latitude and 112 degrees 53' - 113 degrees 23' east longitude with the area of 1,790.90 km2. It is on 0 - 3,675 M above sea level and belongs to the Southern area of East Java Province. The region is bordered in the north by Probolinggo Regency, in the east by Jember Regency, in the south by Indian Ocean and in the west by Malang Regency.

Social Condition
The population of Lumajang Regency consists of several ethnics, and it is predominantly inhabited by Javanese and Madurese amounting to 933,899 people in 1993 with the growth rate of 0.246 per year.
The income per capita reached Rp 831,766 in 1993. Most of them work in the fields of farming, trade, industry, service etc. Besides those ethnics, there is a group of people living with their specific social culture called Tenggerese who live in the village's of Ranupane, Argosari, and its surroundings. Their social culture must be kept everlasting to support the Unity in Diversity and as a tourist attraction as well.

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